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String Theory Explained - What is The True Nature of Reality?

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  • Publicado em 28 Fev 2018
  • Is String Theory the final solution for all of physic’s questions or an overhyped dead end?
    This video was realised with the help of Dr. Alessandro Sfondrini and it was funded by SNSF under Agora Grant n. 171622 and through the NCCR SwissMAP: The Mathematics of Physics.
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    String Theory Explained - What is The True Nature of Reality?

Comentários • 22 591

  • Kurzgesagt – In a Nutshell
    Kurzgesagt – In a Nutshell  3 anos atrás +4437

    You want to learn more about space? Check out our space products on the kurzgesagt shop - all designed with love and produced with care.
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    • Michael
      Michael 21 hora atrás

      Yeah tell aishwarya that

    • taj x
      taj x 3 meses atrás

      The explanation in the video is NOT the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, but instead the observer effect. This is a really rookie mistake and should be corrected in the pinned comment or elsewhere.

    • Sin Bad
      Sin Bad 4 meses atrás

      For those of you still confused, here is a 1st grade breakdown of String Theory and what was said in the video. It’s a little lengthy but I guarantee you’ll be able to understand it (I hope)
      Once upon a time we thought the smallest, most fundamental thing that makes up everything, was the atom. We now know that you can get smaller (and more fundamental if you will) than that.
      It turns out that the atom is made up of 3 particles: Proton, Neutron, and the electron. For awhile, we thought that was as small as you could go. But we now know that the Proton and Neutron are made up of smaller particles called Quarks (we’re pretty sure that the electron is fundamental and nothing makes up the Electron other than energy…
      So now we ask ourselves, what is more fundamental than a Quark? What is smaller? In other words, what makes a Quark? Is it another particle that’s even smaller? We don’t know. This is where String Theory comes in.
      String Theory suggests that it does get smaller. The tiniest, most fundamental building blocks of matter and the universe are tiny strings. Little filaments of energy that vibrate and dance around (as seen at 5:01). And every fundamental sub atomic particle is made by the vibrating strings. If a string vibrates this way, then an electron is made. If it vibrates another way, then a Quark is made. If it vibrates in another way, then a neutrino pops out… so on and so on
      It also turns out that the math behind String Theory tells us that our Universe has 10 dimensions instead of just the 4 that we know. 9 spatial dimensions and 1 temporal dimension (AKA time). When these strings vibrate, they aren’t just vibrating in our 3 dimensions (up/down, left/right, forward/backward). Instead they are vibrating in 9 different dimensions. I dare not try to explain this further
      SIDE NOTE: There seems to be confusion as to whether String Theory suggests that there are 10 or 11 dimensions. It depends on if you are talking about “classic” String Theory or a more updated super-version of of String Theory called “M-Theory” One of them typically states 10, the other 11. It also depends on the source you look at. Some sources use those two theories interchangeably. It’s all kinda confusing
      To also add one more thing that is very important….
      The thing scientists are most interested about concerning String Theory is less of anything I mentioned above but instead something called “Quantum Gravity”
      Einstein’s Theory of General Relativity is extremely accurate and has been one of the most useful tools for understanding the universe around us. But it only answers problems for all the large scale things in the universe: Gravity, Black Holes, Time, Light etc…
      The other side of the coin is Quantum Mechanics. Which deals with all of the smallest things in the universe: Atoms, subatomic particles, a whole bunch of other behaviors and phenomena at very tiny scales, etc…
      Relativity and Quantum Mechanics are the two most accurate and all-encompassing branches of science known to Man. However, they don’t work together. Quantum Mechanics doesn’t work with large scale stuff and Relativity doesn’t work at Quantum levels. So you might think that one of them obviously has to be wrong then. But they aren’t. Again, there is no problem scientists have ever thrown at these two fields that doesn’t get solved, except when you try to marry the two together. Bringing the two together successfully is something called “Quantum Gravity”. If we can figure out Quantum Gravity, that will probably be the biggest discovery ever made in history. At least one of them. It would help us solve everything (loosely speaking). There is nothing more mouth-watering to scientists than Quantum Gravity.
      It just so happens that if String Theory is true and we can figure it out, it would solve for this Quantum Gravity problem. That’s mostly why String Theory is so enticing to scientists. More so than the other cool stuff I mentioned a bit earlier. It would win whoever figured it out a lifetime of Nobel Prizes! (I’m being a bit dramatic of course, but you get the idea! lol)
      Keep in mind, when ST was first proposed, scientists were watering at the mouth. But even to this day there is no real proof/evidence that these Strings exist. And because of that, ST is kinda becoming a joke. Day by day, ST is taken less seriously than before and a lot of physicists (like Brian Green) essentially get told to move on and forget it (roughly speaking). Other than some fancy mathematics, there hasn’t really been anything to show us that it is real
      EDIT: I keep adding on to this. Hopefully this is the last addition. String Theory is also known as “The Theory of Everything” for obvious reasons. Also, earlier I mentioned that Quarks are the smallest particles that we know of. But I kinda made it sound like there was only one type of Quark. Let me clarify and mention that there are 6 types of Quarks that exist in the universe: Up, Down, Top, Bottom, Strange, and Charm Quarks
      Protons are made out of two types: 2x Up Quarks and 1x Down Quark
      Neutrons are the opposite: 2x Down Quarks and 1x Up Quark
      EDIT AGAIN: Earlier I said that the electron is essential just made up of energy. To clarify, more accurately speaking, it’s a negative electrical charge that exists as a cloud of probability in certain orbitals around the nucleus. Ya it’s kinda confusing. The Bohr model of the electron was that the electron was a point particle that orbited the nucleus in discreet orbital shells. This is the classical simplified model that we’ve all learned in school. Quantum mechanics gave us a more accurate understanding that tells us that model is inaccurate and it instead works the confusing way I explained a few sentences ago. The point is that no one has ever seen an electron and we are pretty sure nothing smaller makes up one

    • SHUBHAM GUPTA
      SHUBHAM GUPTA 4 meses atrás

      ​@Kamanasish Debnath yew

    • Sin Bad
      Sin Bad 5 meses atrás

      @Florin I believe M-Theory states 11 dimensions. Pretty similar to String Theory.
      And thank you for the kind words!

  • The Space Peacock
    The Space Peacock 2 anos atrás +37461

    Isn’t it crazy how we’re basically just a bunch of particles trying to understand themselves

    • Idioticusiusiusiusiusiusius
      Idioticusiusiusiusiusiusius 6 dias atrás

      @Alex Kim because you can't really test God's existence, you just have to have faith in it on its own. Many theories are built up on testable hypotheses, which can prove or disprove said theory. I do not believe in God because I don't think you can prove the existence of a god. I personally do not believe string theory because I feel like there's not enough evidence to back it up, as at this point in time we've never observed a string in action.

    • Idioticusiusiusiusiusiusius
      Idioticusiusiusiusiusiusius 8 dias atrás

      @Alex Kim prove

    • The Carpenter Garden
      The Carpenter Garden 11 dias atrás

      @lofaiskov O man don't get me started. Ants are amazing check out ants canada first then ants build a amazing city in a ant hill. They use materials for insulation and they started farms before we did. So much amazing things. Not just a bunch of ants but It depend how u look at something

    • The Space Peacock
      The Space Peacock 28 dias atrás

      @Stone Blue interactions between particles, strictly speaking

  • Jesse James
    Jesse James Anos atrás +1730

    I studied science and engineering a long time ago and I first read about the string theory in 1999 when I was in high school, without really understanding it. In 2021 I talked to 2 cool physicist students and they introduced me to the concept of point elementary particles and then I watched this video and I finally understood it. It took me 22 years. Piece of cake 💪

    • vimal tirkey
      vimal tirkey 5 dias atrás

      Lol took me some months

    • Popai
      Popai 28 dias atrás

      My dad's got the same sense of humour. But it took him longer though lol

    • Badou Ceesay
      Badou Ceesay 6 meses atrás +6

      @Universe Unlocked You don't undertstand it.

    • Khamerien Gibson
      Khamerien Gibson 8 meses atrás

      @Cyd Kriletich LOL

    • Hira Iqbal
      Hira Iqbal 9 meses atrás

      Mjhy b smjha den IN simple word

  • Sin Bad
    Sin Bad 11 meses atrás +3463

    For those of you still confused, here is a 1st grade breakdown of String Theory and what was said in the video. It’s a little lengthy but I guarantee you’ll be able to understand it (I hope)
    Once upon a time we thought the smallest, most fundamental thing that makes up everything, was the atom. We now know that you can get smaller (and more fundamental if you will) than that.
    It turns out that the atom is made up of 3 particles: Proton, Neutron, and the electron. For awhile, we thought that was as small as you could go. But we now know that the Proton and Neutron are made up of smaller particles called Quarks (we’re pretty sure that the electron is fundamental and nothing makes up the Electron other than energy…
    So now we ask ourselves, what is more fundamental than a Quark? What is smaller? In other words, what makes a Quark? Is it another particle that’s even smaller? We don’t know. This is where String Theory comes in.
    String Theory suggests that it does get smaller. The tiniest, most fundamental building blocks of matter and the universe are tiny strings. Little filaments of energy that vibrate and dance around (as seen at 5:01). And every fundamental sub atomic particle in the universe was made by these vibrating strings. If a string vibrates this way, then an electron is made. If it vibrates another way, then a Quark is made. If it vibrates in another way, then a neutrino pops out… so on and so on
    It also turns out that the math behind String Theory tells us that our Universe has 10 dimensions instead of just the 4 that we know. 9 spatial dimensions and 1 temporal dimension (AKA time). When these strings vibrate, they aren’t just vibrating in our 3 dimensions (up/down, left/right, forward/backward). Instead they are vibrating in 9 different dimensions. I dare not try to explain this further
    SIDE NOTE: There seems to be confusion as to whether String Theory suggests that there are 10 or 11 dimensions. It depends on if you are talking about “classic” String Theory or a similar version of String Theory called “M-Theory” One of them typically states 10, the other 11. It also depends on the source you look at. Some sources use those two theories interchangeably. It’s all kinda confusing
    To also add one more thing that is very important….
    The thing scientists are most interested about concerning String Theory is less of anything I mentioned above but instead something called “Quantum Gravity”
    Einstein’s Theory of General Relativity is extremely accurate and has been one of the most useful tools for understanding the universe around us. But it only answers problems for all the large scale things in the universe: Gravity, Black Holes, Time, Light etc…
    The other side of the coin is Quantum Mechanics. Which deals with all of the smallest things in the universe: Atoms, subatomic particles, a whole bunch of other behaviors and phenomena at very tiny scales, etc…
    Relativity and Quantum Mechanics are the two most accurate and all-encompassing branches of science known to Man. However, they don’t work together. Quantum Mechanics doesn’t work with large scale stuff and Relativity doesn’t work at Quantum levels. So you might think that one of them obviously has to be wrong then. But they aren’t. Again, there is no problem scientists have ever thrown at these two fields that doesn’t get solved, except when you try to marry the two together. Bringing the two together successfully is something called “Quantum Gravity”. If we can figure out Quantum Gravity, that will probably be the biggest discovery ever made in history. At least one of them. It would help us solve everything (loosely speaking). There is nothing more mouth-watering to scientists than Quantum Gravity.
    It just so happens that if String Theory is true and we can figure it out, it would solve for this Quantum Gravity problem. That’s mostly why String Theory is so enticing to scientists. More so than the other cool stuff I mentioned a bit earlier. It would win whoever figured it out a lifetime of Nobel Prizes! (I’m being a bit dramatic of course, but you get the idea! lol)
    Keep in mind, when ST was first proposed, scientists were watering at the mouth. But even to this day there is no real proof/evidence that these Strings exist. And because of that, ST is kinda becoming a joke. Day by day, ST is taken less seriously than before and a lot of physicists (like Brian Green) essentially get told to move on and forget it (roughly speaking). Other than some fancy mathematics, there hasn’t really been anything to show us that it is real
    EDIT: I keep adding on to this. Hopefully this is the last addition. String Theory is also known as “The Theory of Everything” for obvious reasons. Also, earlier I mentioned that Quarks are the smallest particles that we know of. But I kinda made it sound like there was only one type of Quark. Let me clarify and mention that there are 6 types of Quarks that exist in the universe: Up, Down, Top, Bottom, Strange, and Charm Quarks
    Protons are made out of two types: 2x Up Quarks and 1x Down Quark
    Neutrons are the opposite: 2x Down Quarks and 1x Up Quark
    EDIT AGAIN: Earlier I said that the electron is essentially just made up of energy. To clarify, more accurately speaking, it’s a negative electrical charge that exists as a cloud of probability in certain orbitals around the nucleus. Ya it’s kinda confusing. The Bohr model of the electron was that the electron was a point particle that orbited the nucleus in discreet orbital shells. This is the classical simplified model that we’ve all learned in school. Quantum mechanics gave us a more accurate understanding that tells us that model is inaccurate and it instead works the confusing way I explained a few sentences ago. The point is that no one has ever seen an electron and we are pretty sure nothing smaller makes up one
    EDIT AGAIN: There’s a few other juicy answers I gave down in the replies when someone asked me a follow up question… if you’re interested
    NOTE: If you need clarification on what I meant by….
    “However, they don’t work together. Quantum Mechanics doesn’t work with large scale stuff and Relativity doesn’t work at Quantum levels…”
    Feel free to ask and I’ll be sure to elaborate!

    • K. Lucas
      K. Lucas 23 horas atrás

      Thank you! You should start a channel. You have your first subscriber and supporter in me.

    • Zym Tudor
      Zym Tudor 14 dias atrás

      Or, Horton hears a who :D

    • PIYUSH MATE
      PIYUSH MATE 18 dias atrás

      This is The Greatest comment i have ever Read.

    • Michael Dallas
      Michael Dallas 25 dias atrás

      Thank you!

    • Samarth Goel
      Samarth Goel 27 dias atrás +1

      so coolll!! thanks

  • Sumit Kumar
    Sumit Kumar Anos atrás +308

    Never stop making this kind of stuff,sir

  • Geovanni Coelho
    Geovanni Coelho Anos atrás +62

    oh my god, I love this channel because you guys can explain these complex things with such ease
    I've been trying to understand the string theory for a while, but never could, and now I believe I do (I'm not a scientist, nor a physicist, I just enjoy learning about the universe)
    Thanks so much for your work, really!

  • Jesus Christ
    Jesus Christ 4 anos atrás +4263

    Exciting times we live in! I never thought I would see the day humanity would successfully detect gravitational waves, and here we are! Praise be science! 🙏🔭

    • Sp1cy Cevapi
      Sp1cy Cevapi Mês atrás

      Bruv... this man... just... GOD BLESS YOU MY MAN ABSOLUTE 🔥 🔥🔥🔥🔥🔥🔥🔥🔥🔥🔥🔥

    • HOPE IN DARKNESS
      HOPE IN DARKNESS Mês atrás

      Correction praise be to Jesus Christ , theory goes with a biblical narrative words have vibration Jesus is called a word and God spoke things into creation through the vibration of his voice

    • mutationally [Joe]
      mutationally [Joe] Mês atrás

      jesus can you just like help?

    • Kevin Wu
      Kevin Wu 2 meses atrás

      I am scared that some people might actually be serious about thinking this is the real jesus

    • Kushagr Joshi
      Kushagr Joshi 3 meses atrás

      jesus can I get universe spoilers?

  • SomeRandomTaco
    SomeRandomTaco 12 dias atrás +1

    Its fascinating as to how such calculations are even carried out. And to think universe has so much depth which keeps on increasing the more it's explored. I really like how Kurzegesagt takes complex topics and simplifies it; the use of analogies may not be as accurate still make it even easier to understand.
    Thank you!

  • zwergingrimmsch
    zwergingrimmsch Anos atrás +8

    Great and accessible explanation, I love this channel! Keep up the great work - the animations are really helpful btw! :)

  • Manash Saha
    Manash Saha 2 meses atrás +4

    "If the universe is a play, the particles are the actors, the gravity is the stage."
    That was epic, quote of the century.

  • Buphido
    Buphido 4 meses atrás +4

    Damn, I‘ve learned about the Heisenberg uncertainty principle multiple times now, but I never quite understood why observing a particle affects its behaviour. This vid explained it perfectly!

  • Jackie Paper
    Jackie Paper Anos atrás +8394

    If string theory is proven one day someone will ask,” what are the strings made of.” Here we go again.

    • yanyan zhang
      yanyan zhang 3 horas atrás

      @redguyphil1 no, strings are made up of a sequence of infinite points.

    • yanyan zhang
      yanyan zhang 3 horas atrás

      @The Theology Channel you cannot concretely say all matter is made up of energy without violating conservation of mass since energy does not have resting mass.

    • yanyan zhang
      yanyan zhang 3 horas atrás

      @Julian No Last Name string theory proposes that the strings through different vibration speeds and orientations become what we see as different particles.

    • yanyan zhang
      yanyan zhang 3 horas atrás

      @Jackie Paper but the strings in string theory vibrate on a 1 dimensional plane. A 1 dimensional plane shouldn’t affect space (2-3 dimensional) or time (4dimensional) planes right?

    • yanyan zhang
      yanyan zhang 3 horas atrás

      @Jackie Paper yes, but if the mass (m) of energy is m=0 (like in light), and matter by definition needs to have a resting mass =\=0, how can energy with a mass variable of 0 then give matter a mass not equal zero? Conservation of mass states that you cannot simply create new mass, mass is a intrinsic property. Light is a form of energy that has no resting mass.

  • ren
    ren 8 meses atrás +3

    I cannot express how much I liked the way you presented all of them into a single video! Sounds really simple and understandable

  • Laura Aole
    Laura Aole 7 meses atrás

    So good! I’m not an physic expert, I’m illustrator. But this explanation was so clear, and I barely know a little bit more about this difficult topic. Thanks.

  • Vikingsandra
    Vikingsandra Anos atrás

    This is a precious video! I'm reading a book about this and I needed a clear explanation. I got it. Thank you SO much!

  • YAMADA
    YAMADA Mês atrás

    Wow, you just explained the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle in a way that makes intuitive way, I never understood why we couldn’t know where electrons in an atom were without losing other characteristics.

  • Sim
    Sim 4 dias atrás +1

    2:15 that's the observer effect, not the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. The uncertainty principle is a fundamental limit to how accurately we can know the physical properties of a particle, unrelated to the instruments used.

  • Ari Anna
    Ari Anna 5 meses atrás +5

    At "if the universe is a play, particles are the actors, but gravity is the stage" I started to cry.

  • Claude H.
    Claude H. 8 meses atrás

    Thank you so much, I have been trying to understand this theory for so long. Your video perfectly explains it!

  • Clientes Informações
    Clientes Informações 4 meses atrás

    I believe that mass comes from how much a particle can expand space time around it self. As an example, a molecule has more mass then all elementary particles separately, the energy is released by the implosion of space time around the molecule.

  • Blake Harris
    Blake Harris Anos atrás +3355

    I’m just impressed and excited that over 16 million people(views) wanted to learn about string theory. Whether you can comprehend it now or not, well done everyone 👏🏻

    • RISHI NIGAM
      RISHI NIGAM 9 meses atrás +1

      It was also one of the theory like big bang theory for explanation how space formed

    • Michael campbell
      Michael campbell 9 meses atrás +1

      yup sheldon brought me here but no im really interested

    • Nalin Goel
      Nalin Goel 10 meses atrás +1

      Watching for the second time. First time was about a year ago. Proud to announce that I now understand it (kinda).

    • Blake Harris
      Blake Harris Anos atrás

      @Cypher791 lmao so true

    • Cypher791
      Cypher791 Anos atrás +1

      @Blake Harris yah I thought that… but then idiots who watch Big Bang Theory will point to you as the typical nerd….. and… if you have a few gold nuggets then they will be convinced that you are the wisest human to have ever walked ☝️😂

  • Bryan Graybill
    Bryan Graybill Anos atrás

    The first two minutes described the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle better than any physics professor or physicist friends I've ever had - thank you for making these!!

  • Cap'n Snackbeard
    Cap'n Snackbeard 6 meses atrás +7

    For those of you still confused: many scientists have been working on this for 50 years and still haven't produced any evidence for it. So don't worry too much about it.

  • The Grim Critic
    The Grim Critic 9 meses atrás +47

    I REALLY hope String Theory is true in our universe because that would make our existence INFINITELY more interesting and profound.

    • Popai
      Popai 28 dias atrás

      Exactly my thought! But the small problem is (haha) that we are made of quantum particles, not them themselves. Who knows? Maybe they even travel to different Multiverses and exist at different times and space at the same time. So interesting

    • House the Unstoppablessed
      House the Unstoppablessed Mês atrás +1

      @wren That's probably what's gonna happen.

    • wren
      wren 2 meses atrás +6

      what if instead of trying to get rid of the 10 dimensions thing, we somehow proved the universe was 10 dimensions, and we were just three dimensional beings living in it?

  • Allesandra
    Allesandra 8 meses atrás +3

    I am not a physics student but this....wow. Just wow. a Marvellous presentation and understanding of string theory. to be honest, the tbbt show got me interested in this. 💙😊

  • TSN Stonepilot
    TSN Stonepilot 3 anos atrás +2370

    This really makes me appreciate how smart some people are. Or that so many people contributed smaller ideas that lead to these crazy hypotheses.

    • T∆TchMe
      T∆TchMe 5 meses atrás

      @Ivo Garner
      There are more people that are eager to learn when compared to truly ignorant people. You are looking at the loudest people, not the majority of people, that is a sign of ignorance. It's funny, ironic even.

    • Cola Bottle
      Cola Bottle 2 anos atrás

      Yes

    • Gabriel Wood
      Gabriel Wood 2 anos atrás +4

      And to imagine hundreds or thousands of years separating some of these discoveries. Gotta love the internet huh? What a time to be alive lol

    • Firstname Lastname
      Firstname Lastname 2 anos atrás +1

      Some of the smartest people I've ever met, were kinda dumb.
      "Thank you for explaining general relativity to my goldfish, but please don't put your finger into the light socket."

  • TheRhuen
    TheRhuen 3 meses atrás

    New discoveries, observations, and theories can make such a difference. The symmetron theory for instance may imply these other dimensions exist (along with dark matter/energy) and we simply lack the means or scale to interact with them. like there could be a dimensions groupings with a few overlapping. Things always get more complex with more parts the longer we look.

  • darkwoodmovies
    darkwoodmovies 7 meses atrás +2

    Holy crap, you just explained one of the most complicated subjects out there in 8 minutes like it's nothing. Wow, major props.

  • Mike Sargsyan
    Mike Sargsyan 2 meses atrás

    After watching the video, I have arrived to several conclusions. Gravity, for instance, may be explained and researched by string theory.
    Scientists looked for a more complicated and advanced particle because gravity couldn't be explained initially with science. If the theory that gravity can be explained with string theory is true, the force can finally be attributed to a certain particle which would make it predictable. In some way, this is insane-like straight out of a science fiction movie.

  • Ewerton Ramos
    Ewerton Ramos 9 meses atrás +9

    Really loved the Zelda reference, you are awesome guys! Thanks so much for the knowledge!

    • Totoslay18
      Totoslay18 5 meses atrás +2

      I’m glad I wasn’t the only one who got that lol

  • Yaowei Liang
    Yaowei Liang 3 anos atrás +25667

    Me at the beginning of the video: I cant wait to learn about the true nature of reality
    Me at the end of the video: I cant wait to learn about the true nature of reality

    • Rajit Sarma
      Rajit Sarma 6 meses atrás

      Try Mandukya Upanishad

    • Bruce Craig
      Bruce Craig 9 meses atrás

      @Warsin and you can’t spell

    • Bryan Bryan
      Bryan Bryan Anos atrás +1

      Yeah now imagine that question is your life’s work of 6 decades and still remains unanswered. Congratulations, you’re a theoretical physicist.

    • Kasia K
      Kasia K Anos atrás +1

      @Mick0722MX Look I’m so smart, I can use a keyboard. This makes me an expert in physics.

    • Mick0722MX
      Mick0722MX Anos atrás

      @testing_1_2_3 It isn't a theory. It is an equation based on nothing other than an idea. Calling it a theory is as arrogant as it is laughable.

  • Cyd Kriletich
    Cyd Kriletich Anos atrás

    I enjoyed this, and now I have a much clearer idea of what I don’t get! Thank you! 😆

  • Efflorescentey
    Efflorescentey 9 meses atrás

    So beautifully written, thank you!

  • Shironea Gaming
    Shironea Gaming 6 meses atrás +3

    I’d like to say, thank you I’m only on 8th grade and I’m trying to get ahead a bit in science and this helps a lot!

  • Dhruvin
    Dhruvin Anos atrás

    5:10 is the most exceptional part of the video explained with a great analogy. Great job.

  • The Critic
    The Critic  4 meses atrás

    Fascinating. We had a interesting debate about string theory in my physics class a long time ago. I think I will look it up and see if our conclusions still holds. Assuming I can find it...

  • Chris Satan
    Chris Satan 5 meses atrás

    Nice animation and storytelling! String theory has another name: dodecahedron rescue oblongated paths. Take cohesive shapes that have higher dimension than their neighbors, then “rescue”, or convene, then with all other matter. The resulting shapes are fields and describe specific motions, using now-consistent “particles”. Publishing! I enjoyed the film.

  • HULL GUITARS USA
    HULL GUITARS USA Anos atrás +1

    I just got to say that transition at 2:15 from the human eye to the Particle collider detector… That was genius And beautiful!!

  • Faye Carroll
    Faye Carroll 10 meses atrás +1

    I’m an 11 year old watching this and I’ve got to say this is a great explanation of the string theory well done 👏

  • Omnipotent Potato
    Omnipotent Potato Anos atrás +1380

    The more our circle of knowledge expands, the bigger the circumference of ignorance surrounding it gets.

    • Shreya Roy Choudhury
      Shreya Roy Choudhury 18 dias atrás

      @The Savant Art underrated comment

    • Knights of the Nine
      Knights of the Nine 2 meses atrás +1

      Not really. Who's to say we aren't close to discovering everything?
      Maybe our circle of knowledge is almost filling the circumference of our ignorance.

    • Goran Rukljač
      Goran Rukljač 2 meses atrás

      Master, when will the Kingdom come?
      And he said unto them:
      The Kingdom of the Father will not come by "expectation"
      (meaning to say within the material universe of mass, energy, space and time, e=mc2, Energy equals mass times the speed of light squared.)
      The Kingdom of the Father IS spread upon the earth and men do not see it.
      The Gospel of Thomas
      Show 🙂

    • alexgab
      alexgab 3 meses atrás

      the more you know, the more you don't know

    • T∆TchMe
      T∆TchMe 5 meses atrás +1

      That is so wrong but also quite accurate lol

  • Tyler
    Tyler 9 meses atrás

    I feel like this could have gone a bit more in depth- but outstandingly done!

  • Lord Puff
    Lord Puff 7 meses atrás +1

    Kurzgesagt is honestly THE best thing i have seen. No matter what i watch this is better. Big respect to you.

  • Levin Wiederkehr
    Levin Wiederkehr 11 meses atrás

    The team that does the animation so such a good job of making the videos so smooth and satisfying

  • Albert Chen
    Albert Chen 24 dias atrás +1

    Essentially why String Theory is important:
    It is a theoretical model of the universe that is mathematically sound but hasn't been able to be proven or tested yet. Scientists have gradually stopped accepting string theory as "the theory of everything", but it is still useful to analyze and it can lead us to some more solid answers down the line

    • Just Rage
      Just Rage 5 dias atrás

      Finally someone that has more than 1 brain cell

  • Death By Cognitive Dissonance
    Death By Cognitive Dissonance 4 anos atrás +2400

    The quality and subject matter of Kurzgesagt cannot be overstated. 👏

    • C Smith
      C Smith 4 anos atrás

      I agree 50%

    • Tuatarian
      Tuatarian 4 anos atrás +1

      u gonna respond? preferably with less "dog shit"?

    • Tuatarian
      Tuatarian 4 anos atrás

      its been ~a month, he gave up

    • Asterverse
      Asterverse 4 anos atrás

      ^^^

    • Tuatarian
      Tuatarian 4 anos atrás

      ah I wish I had that as well... wishful thinking

  • Hovanes Yeghyan
    Hovanes Yeghyan 7 meses atrás

    2:14 I had heard about quantum stuff changing when you look at it, but it didn’t make sense until now, thank you so much for explaining it so easily :))))

  • UCzDwella201
    UCzDwella201 9 meses atrás +1

    Wow this video finally made the Heisenberg uncertainty principle understandable

  • Rovin Barboza
    Rovin Barboza 4 meses atrás

    This is an incredible explanation.

  • Matgaw
    Matgaw 5 meses atrás +1

    There is one serious error in this video. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle is a fundamental principle and is not connected to the act of observation. These are 2 different phenomenons. Even if you could make an observation without interaction - Heisenberg's principle still holds.

  • Nicolás Uribe
    Nicolás Uribe Anos atrás +3341

    I like how they can explain the latest theory of the universe faster than a BRclip video about the plot of Evangelion

    • Kazti
      Kazti 7 meses atrás

      @MONK wtf

    • MONK
      MONK 7 meses atrás

      @Kazti Frank DiMeglio is definitely a delusional narcissist. On one of his comments he said something like, “this is proof that Frank DiMeglio is the greatest scientist whoever lived.” And in the about page on his youtube channel he states that he has mathematically unified physics. Also, constantly copying and pasting the same thing is called spam, and is very annoying for most people.

    • morty
      morty 7 meses atrás

      @Frank DiMeglio hahahhahahah, it's very haha moment i don't even know how to write my laughter

    • morty
      morty 7 meses atrás

      @Frank DiMeglio i do not understand a poo

    • Joum
      Joum 8 meses atrás

      I like how I kind of understood this video but not the human instrumentality project.

  • Malcom Shabazz
    Malcom Shabazz 11 meses atrás

    So simple.yet so deep. Thank you.
    May we be blessed.

  • Aqib
    Aqib 10 meses atrás +4

    This channel is a blessing to humanity

  • Julia Tikhon
    Julia Tikhon 11 meses atrás +1

    The video is great. But in fact there is a question. What is the problem to recognize the existence of 10-12 dimensions?

  • Immortal Race
    Immortal Race Anos atrás +1

    What if there are more dimensions beyond what we are in? We may just not understand yet. There is nothing wrong with more dimensions, right? It would still make sense.
    Edit: Humans can only perceive with what senses we have, there could be more senses to understand reality better.

  • Varvara Mironov
    Varvara Mironov Anos atrás +2194

    church: now, gravity, will you marry quantum physics?
    gravity: ughh no!
    scientists: be a lot cooler if you did

    • Commander McNash
      Commander McNash Anos atrás

      @Minita That would be a great name for a SitCom :D

    • Scott Gray
      Scott Gray Anos atrás

      "Alright, alright, alright!"

    • Lê Ngọc Linh
      Lê Ngọc Linh Anos atrás +2

      An arranged marriage? To hell she's going to agree with that, comes Gravity, we are going home- said Isaac Newton

    • Saukarya Mitra
      Saukarya Mitra Anos atrás +1

      now gravity is dazed and confused.

  • Evan MLJ
    Evan MLJ Anos atrás +1

    What I love about theses videos is the amount of maths it doesn't have

  • Sherlock Ugly
    Sherlock Ugly 8 meses atrás +1

    I do not know why, but i feel like there is a deep similarity between how the universe acts and the evolution and day by day life of all living beings.

  • 杨昊霖
    杨昊霖 Anos atrás

    Here’s the question...
    During the creation of neutron stars, particles in atoms are squeezed so tightly together that protons and electrons fuse into neutrons.
    Well we know this by their charge, but why does a lepton and an up quark fuse into a down quark in the first place?
    Would there be something even smaller that builds these particles? Just like lego pieces, being able to assemble with each other and make different shapes with different functions while being able to reassemble themselves as well?

  • scepta101
    scepta101 Anos atrás +98

    I really enjoyed the referral to large, sweeping theories about the nature of things as “stories.”

    • Aonrust
      Aonrust 11 meses atrás

      @Frank DiMeglio Damn you figured it all out! Maybe you should publish this as a paper in a scientific journal where it can be critiqued by peer review and maybe overtime change all of physcis! You would win a nobel prize for it so do it quickly before I steal your idea!

  • Denis P
    Denis P Anos atrás +5060

    Is it me or does everybody come back every 6 months when they forget what string theory is

    • lucia morton
      lucia morton 8 meses atrás +1

      YUP

    • SweaterDog
      SweaterDog 11 meses atrás

      Unfortunately same

    • Searlyt
      Searlyt Anos atrás

      what kind of higher being are you that you take as much as six months to forget this? i forgot what he was talking about before the video ended

    • J Karica
      J Karica Anos atrás

      For me is every couple years. Older and wiser I hope, and I should understand it this time….I’ll be back.

    • Βασίλης Βλάχος
      Βασίλης Βλάχος Anos atrás

      Quantum computers too

  • FL Mobile Master
    FL Mobile Master 8 meses atrás

    Very good video ;), I found the topic MT interesting... I was thinking... Let's say scientists try to figure out what the neutrino is made of, so they're going to want to know what the particles that make up the neutrino are made of, and that would go on an infinite loop until we find something that just isn't made up of anything, but wait, nothing comes out of nowhere, lol to solve this, wouldn't it be better for scientists to try to discover this particle? (if we can even call it a particle) instead of finding a particle and then trying to find the particle that makes up that particle? I think it makes more sense to think that this particle could not interact with the universe, because it would be very small, and would have positive energy, so, as every particle has an anti-particle, there would also be a particle opposite to this one, that is, a negative particle, if they have different values, they will feel strongly attracted to each other, forming larger particles, and if they were equal they repel each other, generating energy.... That is, this particle would only interact with the universe through the energy The difference in particles could be different energy levels....
    sorry if it got confused i'm brazilian i don't know how to speak english i had to put it in google translator lol

  • Scott Irving
    Scott Irving 2 meses atrás

    This is the only thing that has ever helped explain WHY observing something can change it. I never even thought of the fact that to observe something means that energy has, in the form of light, interacted with it. And given the infinitesimal size and mass of these tiny things, of course that would alter how they behave! It's like shoving a dog and thinking that the natural state of it is to stumble and bark!

  • Kamilah Griggs
    Kamilah Griggs 6 meses atrás

    Teachers should use these vids in classes. They really teach to think beyond.

  • Tom Muntz
    Tom Muntz 4 meses atrás +4

    2:25 Jesse, we need to know when and where a particle is going with absolute precision.

  • Jackamole
    Jackamole 4 anos atrás +1397

    My opinion is that we are missing something and compensating for that is creating all these complex theories. Take for example when we thought the earth was at the Center of our solar system. The model had to be extremely complicated in order for it work but when we found the sun was at the Center the model became considerably easier. Maybe this has happened and there is some fundamental something we are missing?

    • Jo Jo
      Jo Jo 2 anos atrás

      @Reborn well we can only see in 2-dim and touch in three dimensions at best. There couĺd be more dimensions we just can not reach.

    • Prashan D
      Prashan D 3 anos atrás

      @Ryan Gonzalez there's a difference between perceiving time as the next dimension that it is and telling time on the clock, clapping to a rhythm or wanting to take a shit every morning

    • Ryan Gonzalez
      Ryan Gonzalez 3 anos atrás

      @Prashan D you can't perceive time? No circadian rhythm? Bummer.

    • Jyuppiter
      Jyuppiter 3 anos atrás

      Then be free to go out there and prove all of them are wrong, I wish you luck.

    • Sylas Schmidt
      Sylas Schmidt 3 anos atrás

      Maybe we’re missing God

  • Masterrem
    Masterrem 8 meses atrás

    Nicely explained. Even in big bang theory its difficult to understand

  • ThePercsNeedMe
    ThePercsNeedMe 5 meses atrás

    Thanks Guys!!!! i really appreciated this wonderful and insightful video. It was very cool to watch and my 2 year old loved it.

  • Ez Ra
    Ez Ra Mês atrás

    Nobody ever explained the uncertainty principle to me in a way which I understand until, and it's so simple!

  • Carrie
    Carrie  8 meses atrás

    I have studied chemistry at the university, it would be worthy if I would have seen it before, great video!

  • BADGERLIP 20
    BADGERLIP 20 Anos atrás +1219

    This mans voice is so calming it’s crazy. He could literally tell me any story and I’d be amazed

    • Rob Fraser
      Rob Fraser 8 meses atrás

      @Marlene That is not AI, that is a dude.

    • Z 4747
      Z 4747 9 meses atrás

      @Marlene no

    • Ashton
      Ashton 9 meses atrás

      He can now read you the entirety of their new book Immune. Really, there's an audiobook, and it's over 10 hours long.

    • Janssen
      Janssen Anos atrás +1

      Well, he does have 15m subscribers 😅

    • 十一
      十一 Anos atrás

      it is the animation that interest you

  • Or Basso
    Or Basso Anos atrás

    Well, as you explained, gravity is the "stage" of the universe. So what if that stage is composed of a certain particle, an absurd amount of it that only interacts with mass, which would explain why there seems to be nothing between galaxies?

  • Mubbi
    Mubbi 10 meses atrás +2

    The content here is absolutely gold.

  • Joey Patton
    Joey Patton Anos atrás

    I always found string theory just meant wave theory and the motion of the wave is due to the disturbance of being observed collapsing it into a particle form or present form vs noncorperal raw data as energy. Basically energetic Morse code using frequency.

  • Rum and Bass
    Rum and Bass Anos atrás +1

    I learned more in the first 2 minutes of this video than I have in 15 years of very anecdotal research on this subject. This is how we should be taught in schools, from the top down. Explain the big picture, then break it down into its smaller parts.

  • A Murder Of Crows
    A Murder Of Crows Anos atrás +11552

    “I like your funny words, Magic man.”

  • Sithembile Xulu
    Sithembile Xulu Anos atrás

    great video, no huge confusing terms just plain and understandable English, thank you

  • JS_GER_Arbiter
    JS_GER_Arbiter 4 meses atrás

    Gravity isnt actualy a force thats why it is different to other forces. The only reason we treat it as a force is because its observable effect is simmilar to one. I love your visualisations of such stuff so much, you managed to explain it beeing geometry crystal clear in seconds. Hats off

  • knoahbody69
    knoahbody69 Anos atrás

    So if particles are vibrations of the string, what is the string itself? Is there one string going through everything? Are there an infinite number of tiny strings going through the universe?

  • Caelen_Calamity
    Caelen_Calamity 7 meses atrás

    Kurzqestagt, can you do a complete series explaining quantum mechanics?

  • Stranger In the Alps
    Stranger In the Alps Anos atrás +8596

    Aliens flying by:
    Oh look the humans finally started kindergarten

  • Ease Rah
    Ease Rah 2 meses atrás

    Gravity is what holding/keeping each particle it's properties, each particle reacts to gravity differently, it is what hold its shape and other properties

  • Ray of Light 62
    Ray of Light 62 2 dias atrás

    This is a very well made video. Thank you...

  • U.S. Militia
    U.S. Militia 2 meses atrás +1

    Are different wavelengths of light being used inside and outside of a vacuum during these tests?

  • 식물읽어주는시인
    식물읽어주는시인 Anos atrás +17

    There's an old saying in Korea : You should be able to catch truth and wisdom just by studying the principles of things.
    I, therefore, began to study physics and found your video.
    I appreciate your contents and your vocal tone and vibe.
    I pushed the subscribe and like.

  • Guillaume Maille
    Guillaume Maille 4 anos atrás +40

    I don't think that you can find such great quality anywhere else on BRclip. Not to mention how amazing the animations are. Keep up the amazing work.

    • Sushanta
      Sushanta 4 anos atrás

      Guillaume Maille! Check out Lemmino

  • tan duong
    tan duong Anos atrás

    Why don’t we assume elementary particles (electron, proton, quark...) are 3D spheres (atom obit) instead of assume they are participial points (1d) or strings (2d)?

  • Pahal Arya
    Pahal Arya 10 meses atrás +1

    Thanks for sharing the Knowledge and Info!👍

  • WolferDub Jazz
    WolferDub Jazz 7 meses atrás

    does this mean that we can only fully understand string theory if we have other means to observe particles on an ultra minute scale?
    As light itself is too big an electromagnetic wave to bounce back off particles, there must be another way of getting to the very basic structure of anything in the universe. Of course, it would also mean we arent capable of using method X as we can only perceive through our senses.

  • K. R.
    K. R. Anos atrás

    But the big question is: what exactly holds all atoms and smaller particles and anti matter together in the shapes we know, can see, feel or measure?

    • Rob Fraser
      Rob Fraser 8 meses atrás

      Bosons and Gluons, the force carriers.

  • 파르테
    파르테 2 anos atrás +2407

    “We thought we reached the end of reality, until we decided to smash them together really hard”
    -physics history

    • Lumi
      Lumi Anos atrás +1

      @D ANIMTIONS its something we cant test cause we live in a 3d world. If time travel is discovered that solves the 4th dimensional problem being able to go from point a in time to point b in a 3d world. To be able to create a simulation indistinguishable from reality we should have already tested 7 dimensions in string theory.

    • MrGuardianX
      MrGuardianX Anos atrás +2

      @D ANIMTIONS I imagine they try to write down the models of projections of other dimensions on our dimension (think circle when you project 3D sphere on 2D sheet representing 2D world) and try to prove their predictions are right. This will not prove the existence of other dimensions but it will give this theory at least some credibility.

    • Reah C
      Reah C Anos atrás +2

      Idk when he said they "smashed" particles together to form even newer particles, I immediately thought of human beings. We are just particles smashing each other to make newer particles that are "too small to be studied".
      Okay, I'll put the blunt down.

    • leftyfourguns
      leftyfourguns 2 anos atrás

      TIL: my 2-5 year old nephews are quantum physicists

  • HOW TO - TUTORIALS
    HOW TO - TUTORIALS 2 meses atrás

    As usual amazing content.

  • Saba Kestef
    Saba Kestef Anos atrás

    Bir freelance tercüman olarak, Türkçe çeviriyi yapan kişiyi (hiç de haddim olmayarak değil) tebrik ederim. Çok güzel, çok akıcı bir çeviri olmuş. Teşekkürler.

  • Pig
    Pig 4 meses atrás

    8:00 minutes of well put out explanation still didn't makes sense to my tiny brain 🙂

  • Ian Allen
    Ian Allen Anos atrás

    Einstein : Gravity is fundamentally different from the other forces and cannot be represented as a particle.
    String theorists : Let's come up with a hyperdimensional model that still treats gravity and the other forces equivalently at a fundamental level.
    Yeah no wonder it failed.

  • Erkki
    Erkki Anos atrás +3862

    This animation is eyecandy.

  • Minh Dang
    Minh Dang 8 meses atrás

    2:04 In the past, this part said was "more wavelengths means more energy".
    Glad it got fixed!
    Edit : You can clearly see it by turn on the caption.

  • Fabibeni1
    Fabibeni1 Anos atrás

    This is way more calming than learning how humanity will end

  • Drewwww
    Drewwww Anos atrás

    I mean the point is that it doesn't really matter if reality is made out of actual strings. We will never know if it is. What matters is that underlying mathematical framework yields accurate results.

  • Kashif Naseem
    Kashif Naseem 11 meses atrás

    When you said that a string can give you alot of particles including gravity, does that mean the gravity is generated from the strings vibrations of particles? Sorry for noob question.

  • Raven XD
    Raven XD 3 anos atrás +956

    There needs to be a String Theory 2. This video covers the concept of the theory, but not the content of it.

    • Raven XD
      Raven XD Anos atrás

      @Adam First String Theory has a lot of mathematics that weren’t explained in the video. Also the 10 dimensions were only briefly mentioned. “Ho Ho Ho” 😂

    • Luniz Is Glacey
      Luniz Is Glacey Anos atrás

      Wow, that took a while to read all 200 messages! 2 hours in fact (I am a slow reader 😅). Anyway, kinda glad it had an end and wasn't still continuing into the future.

    • Davun Johnson
      Davun Johnson Anos atrás

      @D ANIMTIONS their can’t be other particles that travel faster than light because the limit of speed is the speed of light. The only way their is a particle that’d travels faster than light is if they are massless

    • Davun Johnson
      Davun Johnson Anos atrás

      @Adam First A scientific theory is the highest any idea in physics can reach, string theory is named as a theory for marketing reasons, but is actually a hypothesis. Einstein’s theory of relativity is an actual theory, since he made a prediction of time dilation, and gravitational waves which were detected in 2012. He also made the prediction that light would deflect around the sun. He was the first to predict black holes which was photographed in 2019. Quantum theory is also a theory, since without it we would not have the standard model of physics, which is that electrons exist. Which they do, atoms exist, which they do, and predictions of positions of subatomic particles. QUAMTUM THEORY, cannot explain gravity. Physicist believe that by combining Einstein’s theory of GR and QT we would get a theory of everything and string theory is an attempt of it. However I think that string theory fails by not being able to make a prediction, making it to remain as a hypothesis.
      A scientific theory is not a guess and does not carry the same definition as the regular deffiinition. A theory is a model that can make a prediction.
      The reason we don’t bring god up is because it would not help us. We don’t know how to describe god mathematically, and saying that it is just god would not help us either, since what we’re trying to understand is not god himself, but his tools. We want to understand what laws he put in place to cause the expansion of the Big Bang, we want to know how god build this universe, and saying god will not give us the answer.

    • Jesus Gonzalez
      Jesus Gonzalez 2 anos atrás

      @D ANIMTIONS the reason I bring ST is because ST came from relativity and QM, is a deviation of both theories, and about the light bean in space, the same thing would happen. Actually in space the same interference pattern would happen. And like I said yes their is stuff that can travel faster, but they're masless, keyword massless. For example the graviton the ST magical particle is faster than light but it is massless. However, I agree with you their could be still a mass particle that is faster, for explae their is a hypothetical particle called tachyon, which is a particle that always travels faster than light and it has mass. And relativity doesn't exactly say nothing can't travel faster than light , it just can't be accelerated faster, but tachyons are born at that speed, like photons. Key word accelerate. Let that sink in.